Adygea Republic

The formation of the Circassian autonomous region (Adygea) dates back to July 27, 1922. Adygea successively formed part of the Kuban-Black Sea region until 1924, the North Caucasian region untill 1934, the Azov-Black Sea region untill 1937, and the Krasnodar territory in 1937-1991. The territory of Adygea was expanded in 1936 to incorporate the city of Maikop and the Giagin district, with the capital of Adygea being transferred from Krasnodar to Maikop. In 1962 the Adygei autonomous republic incorporated the territory of the present day Maikop district. In 1991 Adygea was granted the status of a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. Its capital Maikop (178.4 thou), was founded in 1858.
Maikop is 1,669 km away from Moscow.

Geographical location. Republic of Adygea is located in the northwest of the Caucasus on the left bank of the Kuban and Laba rivers. The territory extends 150 km from north to south, and 60 km from west to east. Adygea is surrounded by the Krasnodar territory.

Natural conditions. The northern part of the republic is located on a plain, its southern part lies at the foothills rising up to 300 m. The main rivers are the Laba and the Belaya. The soil is black earth. The forests occupy a little less than 40 % of the republic’s territory. Among trees the oak, beech and hornbeam are predominant. Adygea’s climate is moderately warm and humid. Air temperatures range from -3 to +3 degrees in winter, and from +20 up to +26 degrees in summer. The vegetation period lasts about 180 days. The best seasons are spring and summer.

Population. Almost half of the republic’s population is rural. The indigenous population, the Adygeis or Adyghes as they call themselves, makes up a little over a quarter of the total population in the republic. They speak the Adygei language, which belongs to the Caucasian language family. They use the alphabet based on the Cyrillic letters. Adygei believers are Sunni Moslems of the Khanafit school. The Adyghes prevail in the west, east and northeast of the republic. Among other small ethnic groups there are Tatars, Germans, and Greeks. Most of the districts in Adygea are multinational. During the years of Soviet power polyethnic settlements developed. The demographics are typical of other Russian regions: the negative natality is compensated by an inflow of Russian, Armenians and Greek immigrants from areas of interethnic conflicts. Ethnic contradictions are far being what they are in the other republics of the Northern Caucasus, and have so far been resolved peacefully.

State system. Adygea is a presidential republic. The president is elected by secret general ballot for a term of five years. The Khase, or the State Council, which is the supreme legislature in the country, is elected for a five-year period. The country’s economy is run by the Cabinet with the prime minister appointed by the president and approved by the parliament.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. Adygea is an agrarian and industrial republic with a predominantly developed food-processing industry. Its agricultural lands make up about 43 % of its total acreage. The republic has natural gas, oil and hydropower resources well in surplus. It boasts of hydrosulphuric and sodium chloride mineral resources, which form the basis of its booming resort facilities.

Speciality. Its agriculture focuses on grain crops with an emphasis on wheat and corn production. Technical crops include sunflower and sugar beet. Adygea exports gas, sugar, wine, canned food, cardboard, and furniture.

Main industries : include food, woodworking, pulp-and-paper industries. Its gas industry based on local deposits is well developed. Adygea’s energy sector is largely based on the hydroresources of the Belaya River where two hydroelectric power stations have been built. The industry of building materials is also well developed.

Official website:

Expert RA