Komi Republic

Komi (Zyrian) autonomous republic was established on August 22, 1921. On December 5, 1936 it was transformed into Komi ASSR. In 1991 Republic of Komi was proclaimed to be the part of the RF. Capital – Syktyvkar (population 247.6 thousands), founded in 1780.
Moscow-Syktyvkar distance - 1515 km.

Geographic location. Republic of Komi is located at the north-east part of the East-European plain, to the west of the Ural mountain ridge. North-south – 830 km, west-east – 750 km. In the south borders on Perm territory, in the east – on Khanty-Mansi autonomous district and Sverdlovsk region, in the north-east – on Yamal-Nenetsky autonomous district, in the north and north-west – on Nenetsky autonomous district, in the west – on Archangelsk region, in the south-west – on Kirov region.

Natural conditions. The big part of the Republic is covered with plains; Timan ridge (450 m) crosses the Republic in the center from the north-west to the south-east. At the east there are polar Ural mountains. Water net is well developed. Largest rivers are Pechora with branches and Vychegda with branches. There are many lakes. Swamps cover 12-15% of the territory. The largest part of the territory is taiga. Taiga turns into tundra as of 66-th degree of the northern latitude. The climate is mostly moderate continental with long and severe winter and short, but relatively warm summer. Temperature at the south of Komi in summer: from +10 to +20 degrees, in winter: from -13 to -25 degrees. At the north in summer: from +5 to +15 degrees, in winter: from -17 to -30 degrees. 13% of the whole Republic territory at the north and north-east is permafrost. Vegetation period: 150 days at the south and 90 days at the north.

Population. Indigenous population is Komi – Finn-Ugric language family. Their ancestors lived in the Kama-river basin and had linguistic similarity with Udmurts as of the first millennium BC. The Komi Republic population equals 300 thousands, or 96% of all Komi in the former Soviet republics. Religious Komi are mostly orthodox Christians, as well as Old Believers.

State structure. Komi is a presidential republic. The highest legislative body is one-chamber state council, elected once every five years and consisting of 70 deputies. The executive power is executed by the council of ministers.

Economy strong and weak points. Komi subsoil is rich with mineral resources: coal (Pechora basin – Vorkuta, Yun-Yangin, Khalmer-Yusk, Inta and other fields), oil, natural gas (Timan-Pechora oil-and-gas province — Vuktyl, Pashnin, Usin and other deposits), slate coal, asphaltite, titanium ore (Yareg field), bauxite, rock salt, limestone. Potential hydro-resources reserves exceed 3 GW. Forests cover 29 mln hectares (69% of the territory). Republic of Komi is the richest forest area in the European part of Russia. Local timber reserves amount to 3 bln cubic meters. The Republic boasts important industrial resources: polar fox, marten, salmon, Arctic cisco. The Republic hosts the majority of the RF salmon spawning area. The Komi territory is poorly infra-structured. Road transportation net covers only south and central areas of the Republic. For the last fifty years Kotlas-Vorkuta-Salekhard railway line has been the Republic economic axis, bringing main cargo stream to the Republic. River transport through Vychegda and Pechora rivers has been on the rise. Pipeline facilities are in the state of development. The main pipelines are: Ukhta-Yaroslavl; Ukhta-Torzhok. Gas pipelines: Vuktyl-Ukhta-Torzhok ("Northen Lights"), Nadym-Ukhta.

Specialty. Komi is rich with fuel-energy and timber industry, traditional for commercial hunting. The industrial share in the local GDP exceeds 90%. Agriculture is mostly dairy farming, deer breeding at the northern parts of the Republic. Cultivation areas are mostly used for fodder crops. The Republic predominantly exports coal, wood and timber materials, oil and petroleum products, soot, cellulose, gas. Consumer goods, equipment and machinery, building material, food products and metal are mostly imported.

Main branches of industry. Mining is the most important branch of local industry, based on coal, oil, gas and other natural resources. Timber-cutting, coal, oil and gas industries are in the lead. Timber-cutting is concentrated in Vychegda, Pechora and Mezen river basins. Wood-processing centers are located in Syktyvkar, Ukhta and Pechora. Oil and gas refining is done in Ukhta and Sosnogorsk. There are several large-scale hydro-power stations and small thermal-power stations. Komi is the Russian monopolist manufacturer of special base-paper required for laminated paper to make packs for milk and dairy products.

Official website: http://www.rkomi.ru/

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