Krasnodar Territory

Krasnodar territory was formed on September 13, 1937. Total area of Krasnodar territory is 76 thousand square km. The center is Krasnodar (764,6 thousand inhabitants) founded in 1793.
The distance between Moscow and Krasnodar is 1539 km.

Geographic position. Krasnodar territory is situated in the south of Russia; in the south-west it's washed by the Black sea, in the north-west – by the Azov sea and Kerch channel. The territory borders: in the north – on Rostov region, in the east – on Stavropol territory, in the south-east – on Karachai-Cherkess Republic, in the south – on Abkhaziya. Krasnodar territory has inner borders with Republic of Adygea. The Kerch channel separates Krasnodar territory from the Ukraine.

Natural conditions. Krasnodar territory is situated in the western alpine part of the Big Caucasus and in Kuban-Azov lowland. The highest point is 3256 m. The main river is the Kuban. Tshik, Shapsug and Krasnodar reservoirs are located here. There are a lot of small cavern lakes, on the Azov seaside and Taman peninsula there are coastal lakes. The climate varies from moderately continental to subtropical; January average temperature fluctuates from -4 degrees centigrade (on the plain) to +5 degrees (on the coast), July average temperature is +22...+24 degrees centigrade, in the mountains (2200 m) -8 ... +13 accordingly; annual precipitation varies from 400 to 3200 mm. On the plains black soils prevail, in the mountains soils are mainly mountain-forest and mountain-meadow. Vegetation is made up by broad-leaved (beech, oak) and dark coniferous forest (spruce, silver fur-tree), sub-alpine and alpine meadows.

Population. Krasnodar territory is ranked third in Russia by the number of the population. It amounts to 5,124 million people. Prevailing ethnicity is Russians, the majority of them refer themselves to a special sub-ethnicity — the Kuban Cossacks, their spoken language abounding with the elements of Ukrainian language. There are districts populated by the Armenians (near Armavir), the Greeks. There are a lot of ethnic Ukrainians. Despite of the negative natality the total number of the population is rapidly growing due to migrants from the North Caucasus and Trans Caucasus republics.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. Krasnodar territory is one of the best economically and infrastructural developed region of Russia. The economy is based on favorable natural and climatic conditions and numerous population. The core is agriculture using naturally fertile and developed soils. There are crops of rice, corn, castor-oil plants, southern hemp, essential oil plants. Some regions along the Black sea shore develop tea-growing, citrus plants and tobacco cultivation and gardening (Novorossiysk, Abrau-Dyurso, Gelendzhik). The Azov sea and rivers still abound with fish. The Black sea shore is a continuous chain of resorts, Sochi being most prominent of them. There are a lot of resorts on the seaside of the Azov Sea. As per mineral resources one can mention non-metal building materials deposits and also some gas and oil reserves. Krasnodar territory is of vital importance for Russia in terms of foreign economic ties. The biggest country oil and grain terminals (Novorossiysk and Tuapse ports) are situated here. A special ecological and economic zone has been set up here. It's located around biggest Russian city-resort Sochi (more than 300 thousand inhabitants).

Among unfavorable economic conditions one can mention grave pollution of soils, water bodies and water streams and also power shortage. Krasnodar territory borders on a hot spot – Abkhaz Republic.

Specialty. Krasnodar territory is ranked first in Russia in manufacturing of some agricultural products. All the Russian tea, a quarter of all the grain (including 80% of rice), one third of sugar and vegetable oil are produced here. Cement and reinforced concrete production and agricultural products processing are most notable in industry.

Main industries: building materials, fruit and vegetable preserves, oil-mills, dairy, meat, fish industries; leather and fur, footwear, fuel industries are also well-developed. Krasnodar territory is a monopolist in Russia in production of rotary lathes; machines for nuts and terminal-block bolts unscrewing, oiling and screwing; unified equipment for tracklayers.

Expert RA