Krasnoyarsk Territory

Krasnoyarsk territory was formed on December 7, 1934 with the center in the town of Krasnoyarsk (875.3 thousand inhabitants) founded in 1628.
The distance between Moscow and Krasnoyarsk is 3955 km. Krasnoyarsk territory occupies 2339.7 thousand square km or 13.6% of the whole country.

Krasnoyarsk territory includes Taimyr and Evenk autonomous areas and 42 districts, closed administrative-territorial entities.

Geographic location. Krasnoyarsk territory covers the area from the North Ocean to the mountains of the South Siberia. Krasnoyarsk territory borders: in the south on Tuva Republic, in the south-west on Kemerovo region, in the west - on Khakassia republic, Kemerovo and Tomsk regions, Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets autonomous areas, in the west and north-west on Tiumen region, in the east on Irkutsk region.

Natural conditions. The central part of Krasnoyarsk territory stretches from south to north for 2000 km along Enisey and Angara rivers. Along the left bank of Enisey is a low-lying plain, and to the west from the river there is Tungus mountain ridge and 1104 m Enisey plateau. The southern part of Krasnoyarsk territory is occupied by 3000 m high Eastern Sayany mountains. The climate is sharply continental; January average temperature deviates between -18 and -25 degrees, June — between +20 and +15 degrees; precipitations reach 300 mm at the north, and 800-1000 mm at the south. The northern part is characterized by perennial frost. Taiga occupies the largest part of the territory.

Population. Population of Krasnoyarsk territory amounts to 3015.3 thousand people, or 2.1 % of the whole RF population. Over quarter of the whole territory population lives in the country side. The dominant ethnic group is Russians (90%). Death rate exceeds birth rate, with natural growth being negative and not compensated by migration inflow. The population parameters are on the decreasing side.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. Krasnoyarsk territory boasts all sorts of prerequisites for economic development. It tops the Russian list of timber reserves, comes the second in hydro-power resources, and the third in reserves of mineral fuel (mostly brown coal and oil reserves). There are ferrous and non-ferrous metal deposits, as well as gold, natural stones and non-metallic building materials.

Resourceful and competitive industrial potential has been concentrated in the territory. Excessive electric power encourages development of energy-intense industries. The southern part of the territory is quite good for grain farming, and the rest – for vegetable growing and animal husbandry. Krasnoyarsk territory grows grain (wheat, oats, buckwheat, barley) and technical (fiber flax) cultures; at the south - meat and dairy animal husbandry; at the north – deer farming and animal breeding, fur production.

Unfavorable factors: high transportation costs due to remoteness from main centers of the local product consumption; severe natural-climatic conditions and complicated relief; hard ecologic situation in a number of towns (Norilsk, Kansk, Atchinsk). Supporting vital functions of Norilsk industrial area has become highly problematic.

Specialty. Krasnoyarsk territory has specialized on non-ferrous metals, with further priorities being timber and woodworking industry and electric energy.

Main industries: non-ferrous metals (Norilsk mining and smelting combine producing copper, nickel and cobalt; Krasnoyarsk and Sayany smelters; Sorsk molybdenum combine); machine-building and metal working (producing equipment for timber and pulp-paper industries, combine harvesters, heavy bridge cranes, ships, refrigerators, TV sets, excavators, containers, electro-technical products, trailers, tools); mineral resource industry (brown coal, iron ore, non-ferrous and rare metals, gold, graphite, Iceland spar), chemical (chemical fibers, synthetic rubber, tires, medical devices, rubber technical elements), timber and woodworking, light (textile, leather and foot-wear) and food industry. The territory boasts Krasnoyarsk, Ust-Khantaisk, Mainsk and Nazarov hydro power stations. There is a nuclear reprocessing facility. Krasnoyarsk territory is a monopolist in Russia in production of polycrystalline germanium, cobalt and nickel powder, nickel ore, semi-trailing refrigerators, metallurgy cranes, timber loaders, butadiene rubber.

The largest enterprises in Krasnoyarsk territory are Norilsk Nikel arctic branch, Krasnoyarsk smelter, Krasnoyarsk metallurgical works, Atchinsk aluminous combine, Krasnoyarskkraiugol, Krasnoyarsk combine plant, Atchinsk refinery, Krasnoyarsk tire plant. Buzel, Rosneft, Gazprom, Interros, MDM-Group and other big companies hold their operations in Krasnoyarsk territory.

Expert RA