Kaluga Region

Kaluga region was formed on July 5, 1944 with the center in Kaluga (363,8 thousand inhabitants) founded in 1371. Kaluga region is situated 180 km south-west of Moscow.
Territory is 29,9 thousand square km, Population - 1,1 million people.

Geographic location. Kaluga region is situated in the central part of East European plain. In the west and north-west there's Smolensk upland (up to 279 m height), in the east — Middle Russia upland. Main rivers belong to the Volga Basin — Oka, Zhizdra. The climate is moderately continental; January average temperature is -10 degrees centigrade, July average temperature is +17 degrees centigrade. Annual precipitation is about 650 mm. Soils are of sod-podzoil and grey forest type. Vegetation is coniferous and broad-leaved forests.

Population. The majority of the population is made by Russians. Demographic setting is characterized by negative natality and mechanical growth. In general the demographic setting tends to improve and the number of the population has stabilized lately.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. Kaluga region has qualified manpower, diverse industry and well-developed agriculture. The economy is characterized by a high scientific potential. The region is among top five Russian regions by the share of people employed in scientific research. More than 40 scientific institutions employ about 12 thousand people. Technology town Obninsk with its experimental and atmospheric physics scientific and research complex is located in Kaluga region. The world first pilot atomic power station (Obninsk) is still operating here.

Today Kaluga region is one of fast developing regions of Central Russia. It is ranked among top 20 regions by the density of highways and railroads and among top 10 regions with most developed communications system.

Kaluga region is rich in mineral resources including brown coal, non-metal building materials deposits, phosphorites suitable for fertilizers manufacturing. But it is devoid of any hydroelectric resources, its own power engineering provide only 5% of the demand.

Heavy industry (fuel, petrochemistry, power engineering, metallurgy) products account for an insufficient share of the total volume of production. On the one hand it speeds up adaptation of the region economy to the market, but on the other hand current market situation and low competitiveness of manufacturing industry do not allow to accumulate funds for economy restructuring.

Specialty. Kaluga region is industry oriented (more than 30% of gross regional product). Leading industries are machine-building and metal work, food and timber industry, power engineering and building materials. The economy is well balanced: all sectors are developed proportionally. We can note though a highly productive agriculture which was meant to provide Moscow. Arable lands occupy 1350 thousand hectares. The region focuses in dairy and meat husbandry. In addition to basic industries they develop grains, potatoes, vegetables farming and long-fibred flax growing. Poultry keeping also makes up a sufficient part of agricultural production. About 35% of livestock and poultry and 5-7% of milk is exported to other regions.

Main industries: machine-building (turbines, hydrotransmissions, diesel locomotive, pumps, electrical equipment, instruments, boilers); woodworking industry (matches, furniture production etc.); light industry (knitwear, garment, wool, leather, stitch-embroided and artistic products); building materials. Kaluga region is a monopolist in Russia in production of some types of railroad building machinery, shunting locomotives, parchment.

Expert RA