Leningrad Region

Leningrad region was formed on August 1, 1927. The region administration is settled in Saint Petersburg (the latter being a separate Subject of the Federation).
The distance between Moscow and Saint-Petersburg is 651 km.

Geographic location. Leningrad region is located in the north-west of East European Plain. It's washed by the Finnish gulf, Baltic Sea, Ladoga and Onega lakes. The territory stretches for 325 km from north to south and 446 km – from east to west. It borders: in the south – on Novgorod and Pskov regions, in the west – on Estonia, in the north-west – on Finland, in the north – on Karelia Republic, in the east – on Vologda region.

Natural conditions. The greater part of Leningrad region is lowland (Baltic, Near-Neva, Vuoksinskaya, Svirskaya and others) with the traces of glacier's activity. Baltic-Ladoga terrace (up to 300 m height) stretches south from the Finnish gulf and Ladoga lake. Main rivers are the Neva, Volkhov, Svir, Vuoksa. The climate is transitional from maritime to continental. January average temperature is -7 degrees centigrade, July - +15 degrees centigrade; annual precipitation reaches 850 mm. Podzol and bog soils with mixed forests are wide-spread on the territory of the region. Arable lands constitute about 10,9% of the total area of Leningrad region. Best developed agricultural areas are located in the south-west, west and north-west of Saint Petersburg. More then 2/3 of all arable lands of the region are concentrated there, grasslands and pastures prevailing.

Population. In spite of the biggest economic center proximity the territory of Leningrad region is sparsely populated, there is not a single big town here (with the population of more than 100 thousand inhabitants). More than 90% of the population is Russians. Population of the region has been stably growing due to migration inflow. Besides extremely unfavorable natality and death rate Leningrad region is characterized by short male life span.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. Leningrad region has deposits of bauxites, slate coal, phosphorite, non-metal building materials, peat. Regional authorities have contract relations with the federal executive bodies which give the former more independence. Part of the territory is a free economic zone (Vyborg district). Most significant obstacle for the region economic development is caused by two Subjects' administration functioning within a single social and economic space.

Specialty. The economy of Leningrad region is closely connected with Saint Petersburg. Besides agriculture providing the city population with foodstuff, the region has well-developed oil refinery, power engineering and cement production supplementing the economy of Saint Petersburg. Non-ferrous metallurgy and pulp-and-paper industries are of vital importance as they are.

Main industries: non-ferrous (aluminum plant in Volkhov, aluminous plant in Bauxitogorsk) and ferrous (semi-integrated) metallurgy; timber, pulp-and-paper and chemical industries (chemical fertilizers, sulfuric acid, chemical fibers production), oil refinery. There are hydroelectric power stations on rivers Volkhov, Svir, Vuoksa, Narva, and also Kirishi regional power station, Leningrad atomic power station. Leningrad region is a monopolist in Russia in production of seed protectants, artificial parchment, cable paper, grinding dust and liquid paraffin.

Expert RA