Moscow Region

Moscow region was formed on January 14, 1929. The regional administration is located in Moscow, the latter being a separate subject of the Federation.

Geographic location. Moscow region is situated in the Oka and Volga interfluve. It borders: in the south – on Tula region, in the south-west – on Kaluga region, in the west – on Smolensk region, in the north-west and north – on Tver region, in the north-east – on Yaroslavl region, in the north and north-east – on Vladimir region and in the south-east – on Ryazan region.

Natural conditions. The relief is mostly plain; the west and north of the region are occupied by Smolensk and Moscow elevations. The highest (up to 285 m) and most hilly part of these is Klin-Dmitrov ridge; the east is swampy Meshchera lowland. Main rivers are the Oka, Moscow river (with its feeders Ruza, Istra, Yauza, Pakhra), Klyazma. There is a net of water reservoirs on the Moscow river and Channel named after Moscow; there are lakes (Trostneskoye, Nerskoye, Chernoye) and bogs on the territory of the region. The climate is moderately continental; January average temperature is -10 degrees centigrade, July average temperature is +17degrees centigrade; annual precipitation varies from 450 to 650 mm. Soils are mainly sod-podzol, in the south – light-grey soils. Vegetation is mixed forests.

Population. Prevailing population is Russian. Natality is negative. In spite of great attraction for migrants the total number of the population has been decreasing.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage of Moscow region is its central position, proximity to the main economic and political center of Russia, Moscow, and also well developed infrastructure of the territory. A lot of scientific production complexes and experimental pilot enterprises are located here. The region is characterized by the highest concentration of scientific towns (Dubna, Pushchino, Troitsk, Chernogolovka and others). Among natural resources one an mention phosphoric deposits, ceramic clay and non-metal building materials. Artistic ceramics (Gzhel), wooden case painting (Fedoskino) and metal tray painting (Zhostovo) are developing on the base of old-time rural handicrafts. Agriculture fails to provide all the needs of the population to a full extent. The region is overloaded with defense enterprises.

Specialty. Moscow region is notable for passenger carriages and diesel locomotive building, light industry products.

Main industries: machine-building and metal working — machine-tools and equipment for ferrous metallurgy, power engineering, construction, transport, agriculture, light industry (Mytishchi. Lyubertsy, Podolsk, Kolomna, Dmitriv, Yegoryevsk); optomechanical production (Krasnogorsk, Sergiev Posad, Lytkarino), radio electronic industry, instrument making; steelworks (Elektrostal, Stupino), chemical industry: mineral fertilizers, pant protection stuff, plastics, chemical fibers, varnish and paints manufacture (Voskresensk, Shchelkovo, Klin, Serpukhov, Klin, Serpukhov, Orekhovo-Zuevo); the oldest industry is textile, production of cotton, wool, silk fabric, knitted goods (Balashiha, Ramenskoye, Orekhovo-Zuevo, Noginsk, Naro-Fominsk); footwear, clothing industry, food industry, building materials, glass, whiteware production. Peat extraction is developed. Electric power is supplied by Kashira and Shatura regional power stations. Moscow region is a monopolist in Russia in production of 10 types of industrial products, including: main-line diesel locomotive, metro cars, high-quality indium etc.

Expert RA