Nizhny Novgorod Region

The region was formed on January 14, 1929 with the center in Nizhny Novgorod (1377,8 thousand inhabitants) founded in 1221.
The distance between Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod is 439 km.

Geographic location. Nizhny Novgorod region is located in the mid-stream of the Volga. It borders: in the south – on Mordov Republic, in the south-west – on Ryazan region, in the west – on Vladimir and Ivanovo regions, in the north-west and north – on Kostroma region, in the north and north-east – on Kirov region, in the east – on Mariy El Republic and Chuvash Republic.

Natural conditions. The Volga divides Nizhny Novgorod region into right-bank upland (up to 247 m height) and Trans-Volga lowland. The main rivers are the Volga (with its feeder the Oka), Vetluga, Sura. The climate is moderately continental; January average temperature is -12 degrees centigrade, July average temperature is +19 degrees centigrade; annual precipitation is about 500 mm. Soils are sod-podzoil and podzoil. Vegetation: in Trans-Volga districts — coniferous (spruce, pine) and mixed forests, in the right-bank districts – oak-groves and meadow steppes.

Population. Nizhny Novgorod region is characterized by high urbanization and unfavorable demographic setting. The total number of the population is constantly decreasing, natality is very low. Prevailing ethnicity is Russians, but there are districts populated by Tatars.

Economic advantages and disadvantages. Nizhny Novgorod region does not possesses any notable mineral resources besides local building materials and rock salt. Quite fertile soils are only in the right-bank part of the region. However its favorable junction transport and geographic position presupposed Nizhny Novgorod development, firstly as a commercial and later, in the industrialization period, as a biggest industrial center. At present most of the region towns have defense enterprises surviving through tough times.

Specialty. Nizhny Novgorod specializes in manufacturing machine-building and chemical products.

Main industries: machine-building, steelworks, chemical, timber, pulp-and-paper, light, food industries. Machine-building and metalwork plants produce trucks and motor cars, buses, creeper tractor, car units and parts, river boats and sea ships, car and ship engines, aircrafts, machine-tools, instruments, equipment for chemical, food and light industries, TV-sets etc. (Nizhny Novgorod, Pavlovo, Arzamas); chemical plants manufacture organic synthesis products, plastics and chemical resins, plexiglass, varnishes, weed and pest-killer chemicals etc. (Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod). Steelwork plants are situated in Vyksa, Kulebaki, Nizhny Novgorod, Bor, non-ferrous metallurgy plants are in Nizhny Novgorod, pulp-and-paper plants – in Pravdinsk, Balakhna, oil refinery – in Kstov. Nizhny Novgorod region is famous for its old-time centers of metal works (Pavlovo, Vorsma), artistic handicrafts (Khokhloma painting, Gorodets carving and painting). Gorkovskaya hydroelctic power station functions in the region. Nizhny Novgorod region is a monopolist in Russia in production of 8 types of industrial products including instrumental iron sheet, sulfuric anhydride, ethyl fluid, sideboard trucks.

Expert RA