Ingush Republic

Established: Ingush autonomous area – July 7, 1924 г.; Chechen-Ingush autonomous area - January 1934; Chechen-Ingush ASSR – December 5, 1936, (from 1944 to 1957 Chechen-Ingush ASSR was abolished); Republic of Ingushetia - June 1993. Temporary capital - Nazran (76.4 thousands), founded in 1967. In 1998 the capital was ceremoniously moved to Magas.
Moscow-Nazran distance - about 2000 km.

Geographic location. Republic of Ingushetia is located at the northern slope of the Big Caucasus ridge and at parallel smaller ones: Tersk, Sunzhen and Rocky ridges. North-south – 120 km, west-east - 50 km. It borders: in the south – on Republic of Georgia, in the east – on Republic of Northern Ossetia, in the north – on Stavropol territory, in the east – on Chechen Republic. The border with Chechnia is not precise. Ingushetia is the only Russian Republic without borders with Russian regions.

Natural conditions. Ingushetia has mountainous relief. Below 1800 m there is broad-leaved vegetation, higher – alpine meadows. Forests consist mostly of valuable varieties and cover about 140 thousands hectares. The climate is continental. Winter is mild, summer is hot. Temperature depends on height; winter: from -6 to +3 degrees, summer: from +20 to +30 degrees.

Population. Ingushetia’s population is mostly rural. Demography is typical for transition type of population reproduction: high birth rate is accompanied by low mortality and relatively high life span. High migration is caused by the war in the neighboring Chechnia. The Republic indigenous population - Ingushs (also Galgais, together with Chechens call themselves Vainakhs). Their total population in the former Soviet Union republics exceeds 237 thousands. About 150 thousands Ingushs live at the territory of Ingushetia. They are Muslims by confession.

State structure. Ingushetia is a presidential republic in the RF. The acting Constitution was approved in 1994. The highest legislative body is one-chamber parliament – people’s council. The executive power is exercised by council of ministers.

Economy strong and weak points. Ingushetia is an agro-industrial republic. It boasts oil and gas reserves, as well as construction materials (building stone and limestone) and certain hydro resources. The Republic territory is crossed by railroad line Rostov-on-Don – Beslan – Nazran – Grozny – Makhachkala – Baku and motor road Rostov-on-Don – Nalchik – Vladikavkaz –Nazran – Grozny - Baku. Stream oil and gas pipelines pass through the Republic territory from Grozny. The Republic has no airport ready to receive long distance planes. Still, local airlines connect Ingushetia with capitals of neighboring countries and remote areas inside the Republic. Nearby airports are in Vladikavkaz and Grozny. In 1994—1997 free custom and offshore zone functioned in the Republic. Presently it has Ingushetia Center for International Business.

Specialty. Ingushetia supplies to the other RF Republics: oil and petroleum products, manganese ore, food and electrical products, agriculture output. Ingushetia imports consumer goods, energy resources, machinery and equipment, motor transport.

Main branches of industry. Ingushetia’s industry is weak. Mostly it is food products on local agriculture resources and mining – oil and gas deposits in the area of Malgobek, at the north of the Republic. In Nazran electric and knitted goods are manufactured. Sheep and livestock breeding play dominant role in the local agriculture. Wine and tobacco growing are well-developed, too. Crop sector is presented by wheat, oats and buckwheat. Agricultural lands in Ingushetia amount to 270 thousands hectares.

Official website:

Expert RA